Weapons of mass destruction including chemical and biological weapons
are regarded by most countries as illegal. The International
Court of Justice meeting on the 8th of
July 1996 advised that:
" ...the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary
to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and
in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law."
However, the court left open the possibility that the use of
nuclear weapons as a last self-defence might be justified.
Campaigners who take direct action (see NVDA)
to impede nuclear activities say that they are upholding the law that
nuclear weapons are illegal.
THE LEGALITY OF TRIDENT REVIEW - 6th DECEMBER 2000
The Ultimate Evil
" The nuclear weapon, the ultimate evil, destabilises humanitarian
law which is the law of the lesser evil. The existence of nuclear weapons
is therefore a challenge to the very existence of humanitarian law,
not to mention their long-term effects of damage to the human environment,
in respect to which the right to life must be exercised."
- Judge Bedgaoui, President of the World Court
Over 30 years ago the nuclear weapon states undertook to disarm all their
nuclear weapons in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In 1996
the International Court of Justice (ICJ) reaffirmed that this promise
is a legally binding obligation. On 20th May 2000 all NPT member states,
including the UK, agreed to a Programme of Action on
Nuclear Disarmament which further committed them to "An
unequivocal undertaking... to accomplish the total elimination of their
The July 1996 Opinion of the International Court of Justice
also confirmed that nuclear weapons, like all weapons, are subject to
the constraints imposed by international humanitarian laww. These proscribe
the use of weapons that cannot discriminate between military targets and
civilians. On the basis of test data and other evidence it is scarcely
imaginable that any nuclear weapon, including the British Trident system
deployed from Faslane, could comply with these restrictions. The UK government
has presented no reasoned argument to show that Trident could ever be
threatened or used lawfully.
THE GREENOCK RULING
At Greenock Sheriff Court in October 1999 Angie Zelter,
Ellen Moxley, and Ulla Roder of
Trident Ploughshares were charged with malicious damage. On 8th June 1999
they had boarded the floating laboratory Maytime
moored in Loch Goil and thrown equipment worth several hundred thousand
pounds into the Loch. The laboratory is vital to the Trident programme
as it researches, tests, and maintains the ability of the Trident submarines
to remain undetected under water whilst on patrol.
From the beginning of their case the three women openly
admitted that they had purposely destroyed their equipment. Their defence
was that they were engaged in crime prevention through the disarmament
of illegal and criminal weapons of mass destruction. No evidence was called
by the Prosecution to rebut this argument. In aquitting them Sheriff
Gimblett allowed that the Trident Ploughshares view is a reasonable
one and arguable in a court of law. She also ruled that there was no criminal
intent in their action because it was based on a sincere belief that they
were acting to prevent a greater crime, in effect a continuing criminal
conspiracy to contravene international humanitarian law.
THE LORD ADVOCATE'S REFERENCE
The Lord Advocate of Scotland asked the High Court Justiciary in Edinburgh
for a clarification of the Greenock Sheriff's ruling on points of law.
The questions he raised were:
- In a trial under Scottish criminal procedure, is it competent
to lead evidence as to the content of customary international law as
it applies to the United Kingdom?
- Does any rule of customary international law justify
a private individual in Scotland in damaging or destroying in pursuit
of his or her objection to the United Kingdom's possession of nuclear
weapons, its action in palcing such weapons at locations within Scotland
or its policies in relation to such weapons?
- Does the belief of an accused person that his or her
actions are justified in law constitute a defence to a charge of malicious
mischief or theft?
- Is it a general defence to a criminal charge that the
offence was committed in order to prevent or bring to an end the commission
of an offence by another person?
The High Court's decisions did not effect the women's aquittal but it set
down authoritative guidelines for future cases. The four questions were
about Scottish law and related to one particular nuclear weapons system
Trident, but the general principles are the same for any civilised country.
For the first time, the application of international humanitarian law to
nuclear weapons, as clarified by the Advisory Opinion of the International
Court of Justice, was under review in a nuclear weapon state. The potential
global implications of this Reference Hearing were, therefore, immense.
The Court's answer to all four questions was "no", thus indicating its acceptance
of the conventional view that the possession of nuclear weapons by Britain